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Research: Text

Projects in progress:

Ocean cruising after COVID-19 with Dr. Tim Mazzarol, Dr. Geoffrey Soutar, Dr. Suellen Tapsall & Dr. Wendy Elliott, funded by the University of Western Australia.

An in-depth investigation of how COVID-19 has impacted perceptions of travel and cruise risks, as well as willingness to cruise and future travel intentions with a focus on Australia and the UK.

Phase one completed Autumn 2020, and phase two completion projected for Summer 2023.  Phase two will include a larger sample of UK, US and Aus travellers.


     1)   Cruising through a pandemic: The impact of COVID-19 on intentions to cruise - PUBLISHED MARCH 2021

     2)   Cruise passengers' risk reduction strategies in the wake of COVID-19 - PUBLISHED OCTOBER 2021

     3)   COVID-19’s impact on the perceived risk of ocean cruising: a Best-Worst Scaling study of Australian consumers - PUBLISHED JANUARY 2022 

     4) Trustworthiness and ethical issues post-COVID in the cruise sector - forthcoming 2024


Experiences of being onboard during the pandemic

An exploration of perceptions of risk, risk communication and feelings about future cruising with participants who were onboard a cruise ship that was either in quarantine or stranded at sea in March-April 2020. 

Published articles and book chapters

Holland, J. (2023). Going Against the "floe": the Intersection of Power, Culture, and Community at Icy Strait Point, Alaska. Tourism Review International, 27(1), 51-68.[Link]

Holland, J. (2022). Risk to self: Self-congruity in cruise decision-making. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 13567667221078250.[Link]

Tapsall, S., Soutar, G. N., Elliott, W. A., Mazzarol, T., & Holland, J. (2022). COVID-19’s impact on the perceived risk of ocean cruising: A best-worst scaling study of Australian consumers. Tourism Economics, 13548166211054591.[Link]

Holland, J., Mazzarol, T., Soutar, G. N., Tapsall, S., & Elliott, W. A. (2021). Cruise passengers’ risk reduction strategies in the wake of COVID-19. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research26(11), 1189-1206. [Link]

Routledge Handbook of the Tourist Experience Lester, J.-A., Holland, J., & Palmer, C. (2021). The contemporary cruise tourist experience. In R. Sharpley (Ed.), Routledge Handbook of the Tourist Experience (ch. 29). Routledge: London.

Holland, J., Weeden, C., Lester, J.-L., & Palmer, C. (2021). Conceptualising risk in cruise holidays: A critical review. International Journal of Tourism research, pp. 1-18. [Link]

Holland, J., Mazzarol, T., Soutar, G. N., Tapsall, S., & Elliott, W. A. (2021). Cruising through a pandemic: The impact of COVID-19 on intentions to cruise. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, pp. 1-15. [Link]

Holland, J. (2020). Risk perceptions of health and safety in cruising, AIMS Geosciences, 6(4), 422-436. [Link]

Holland, J. (2020). Book review: Of Penguins and Polar Bears: A History of Cold Water Cruising. International Journal of Maritime History, 32(4), 1033-1035. [Link]

Holland, J. (2019). Rethinking risk in cruising. Conference paper presented at the 6th International Cruise Conference, Bremerhaven, Germany. [Link]

Holland, J. (2019). Navigating uncertainty: Tourists' perceptions of risk in ocean cruising. (Ph.D Thesis, University of Brighton). 

  • My PhD reconceptualised risk in cruising, and results suggest practical implications for marketing to potentially attract non-cruisers and ways to retain current cruisers, particularly in the UK market, but also how risk may influence travel decision-making. Situated in an interpretivist ontology and a constructivist epistemology, my findings provide insight into how different aspects of risk influence decision-making for a holiday cruise. I suggest areas for further research on leisure constraints and self-congruity, and reveal practical marketing applications for cruise lines and the cruise industry to assist with brand switching and loyalty, and how to potentially attract non-cruisers. [Link]

  • I won the "3 Minute Thesis" in 2018 for the University of Brighton Doctoral College for being able to share my entire PhD in 3 minutes, with no notes, 1 slide (a picture of a cruise ship) and to make it engaging and understandable for everyone.

Holland, J. (2017). Navigating Uncertainty: The Influence of Risk on Consumer Decision-Making in Ocean Cruising, Part II in Leisure Tourism, CABI Database.  

Holland, J. (2016). Navigating Uncertainty: The Influence of Risk on Consumer Decision-Making in Ocean Cruising, Part I in Leisure Tourism, CABI Database.  

Johnson, J. (2004) Exploring Experiences of Authenticity at Heritage Tourist Sites in New Zealand. (Master of Tourism Thesis). University of Otago: Dunedin, New Zealand.

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