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Research: Text

In progress

Ocean cruising after COVID-19 with Dr. Tim Mazzarol, Dr. Geoffrey Soutar, Dr. Suellen Tapsall & Dr. Wendy Elliott, funded by the University of Western Australia.

An in-depth investigation of how COVID-19 has impacted perceptions of travel and cruise risks, as well as willingness to cruise and future travel intentions with a focus on Australia and the UK. Phase one completed Autumn 2020, and phase two completion projected for Spring 2022.  [Link]


     1)   Cruising through a pandemic: The impact of COVID-19 on intentions to cruise - PUBLISHED MARCH 2021

     2)   Cruise passengers' risk reduction strategies in the wake of COVID-19 - PUBLISHED OCTOBER 2021

     3)   COVID-19’s impact on the perceived risk of ocean cruising: a Best-Worst Scaling study of Australian consumers - PUBLISHED JANUARY 2022 

     4) Trustworthiness and ethical issues post-COVID in the cruise sector - forthcoming 2022

     *Research findings available on request*

Experiences of being onboard during the pandemic

An exploration of perceptions of risk, risk communication and feelings about future cruising with participants who were onboard a cruise ship that was either in quarantine or stranded at sea in March-April 2020. 

Going against the “floe”: Power relations and cruise tourism development at Icy Strait Point - forthcoming/presented at the 2021 TTRA Annual Conference

Exploring Icy Strait Point in Alaska and development of the new cruise terminal at Outer Point within the wider issues affecting the Indigenous Hoonah community.


Holland, J. (2022). Risk to self: Self-congruity in cruise decision-making. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 13567667221078250.[Link]

Tapsall, S., Soutar, G. N., Elliott, W. A., Mazzarol, T., & Holland, J. (2022). COVID-19’s impact on the perceived risk of ocean cruising: A best-worst scaling study of Australian consumers. Tourism Economics, 13548166211054591.[Link]

Holland, J., Mazzarol, T., Soutar, G. N., Tapsall, S., & Elliott, W. A. (2021). Cruise passengers’ risk reduction strategies in the wake of COVID-19. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research26(11), 1189-1206. [Link]

Routledge Handbook of the Tourist Experience Lester, J.-A., Holland, J., & Palmer, C. (2021). The contemporary cruise tourist experience. In R. Sharpley (Ed.), Routledge Handbook of the Tourist Experience (ch. 29). Routledge: London.

Holland, J., Weeden, C., Lester, J.-L., & Palmer, C. (2021). Conceptualising risk in cruise holidays: A critical review. International Journal of Tourism research, pp. 1-18. [Link]

Holland, J., Mazzarol, T., Soutar, G. N., Tapsall, S., & Elliott, W. A. (2021). Cruising through a pandemic: The impact of COVID-19 on intentions to cruise. Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, pp. 1-15. [Link]

Holland, J. (2020). Risk perceptions of health and safety in cruising, AIMS Geosciences, 6(4), 422-436. [Link]

Holland, J. (2020). Book review: Of Penguins and Polar Bears: A History of Cold Water Cruising. International Journal of Maritime History, 32(4), 1033-1035. [Link]

Holland, J. (2019). Rethinking risk in cruising. Conference paper presented at the 6th International Cruise Conference, Bremerhaven, Germany. [Link]

Holland, J. (2019). Navigating uncertainty: Tourists' perceptions of risk in ocean cruising. (Ph.D Thesis, University of Brighton). 

  • My PhD reconceptualised risk in cruising, and results suggest practical implications for marketing to potentially attract non-cruisers and ways to retain current cruisers, particularly in the UK market, but also how risk may influence travel decision-making. Situated in an interpretivist ontology and a constructivist epistemology, my findings provide insight into how different aspects of risk influence decision-making for a holiday cruise. I suggest areas for further research on leisure constraints and self-congruity, and reveal practical marketing applications for cruise lines and the cruise industry to assist with brand switching and loyalty, and how to potentially attract non-cruisers. [Link]

  • I won the "3 Minute Thesis" in 2018 for the University of Brighton Doctoral College for being able to share my entire PhD in 3 minutes, with no notes, 1 slide (a picture of a cruise ship) and to make it engaging and understandable for everyone.

Holland, J. (2017). Navigating Uncertainty: The Influence of Risk on Consumer Decision-Making in Ocean Cruising, Part II in Leisure Tourism, CABI Database.  

Holland, J. (2016). Navigating Uncertainty: The Influence of Risk on Consumer Decision-Making in Ocean Cruising, Part I in Leisure Tourism, CABI Database.  

Johnson, J. (2004) Exploring Experiences of Authenticity at Heritage Tourist Sites in New Zealand. (Master of Tourism Thesis). University of Otago: Dunedin, New Zealand.

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